Mounting ISO files in Linux is quite straight forward and simple e.g. using the mounter function in Ubuntu straight from the context menu or by using a command line like this:
mount -o loop image.iso /mnt
Anyway mounting BIN/CUE image files is not that straight forward as they’ll need conversion to ISO before mounting, however the process is quite simple, but it need a small application called bchunk. The bchunk package contains a UNIX/C rewrite of the BinChunker program. It converts a CD image in a .bin/.cue format (sometimes .raw/.cue) into a set of .iso and .cdr/.wav tracks. The .bin/.cue format is used by some non-UNIX CD-writing software, but is not supported on most other CD-writing programs.
Runlevel is the mode in which the operating system like Linux is running. Conventionally, seven runlevels from 0 to 6 existed. Where 0 meant shutdown and 6 meant Reboot.
In previous versions, Ubuntu used to the /etc/inittab file to manage runlevels, just like most of the Linux distributions. This file was based on traditional init daemon, which is used to perform system startup tasks. This was replaced in Ubuntu 6.10 (Release date: 26th-Oct-2006) with Upstart, an event based daemon. Now there are several files under the /etc/events.d/ directory.
Normally, a system can not communicate with another system belonging to a different network address. IP forwarding is the mechanism of forwarding an IP packet from one network (example: 192.168.1.0) to another network (example: 192.168.2.0).
How to enable IP Forwarding in Linux?
By default, IP forwarding is disabled in linux. The current setting can be verfied using the command:
This will give the output: 0
Another way to test is to run:
This will give the output:
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
Where 0 means disabled and 1 means enabled.
Enabling IP Forwarding for the Current Running Kernel
Running either of commands will perform the task:
sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
But this is only for the current running kernel session. After reboot the old values will be restored.
Permanently Enabling IP Forwarding
Open the required in VIM or any other text editor:
Locate the line and modify it as under:
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
But these changes will not take effect unless the system is restarted or the command is run:
sysctl -p /etc/sysctll.conf
For Redhat systems, restarting the network service will automatically reload the changes to sysctl.conf:
service network restart
On Ubuntu, this is also possible by restarting the procps service:
For Debian distributions open the /etc/network/options and make the following changes and restart the network service or reboot:
ip_forward = yes
For Redhat distribution open /etc/sysconfig/network and do the same:
FORWARD_IPV4 = true
The changes can be viewed using the commands mentioned above.